Increased Sensitivity to Many Drugs: The problems of decreased body size, altered body composition (more fat, less water), and decreased liver and kidney function cause many drugs to accumulate in older people’s bodies at dangerously higher levels and for longer times than in younger people.
For which reason S is are elderly patients at increased risk for drug interactions and toxicity?
Older individuals are at greater risk for ADEs due to metabolic changes and decreased drug clearance associated with aging; this risk is compounded by increasing numbers of drugs used. Polypharmacy increases the potential for drug-drug interactions and for prescription of potentially inappropriate medications .
What factors can affect drug metabolism in an elderly client?
Aging results in a number of significant changes in the human liver including reductions in liver blood flow, size, drug-metabolizing enzyme content, and pseudocapillarization. Drug metabolism is also influenced by comorbid disease, frailty, concomitant medicines, and (epi)genetics.
Which factor is most involved in the elderly as a reason for polypharmacy?
Factors most strongly associated with excessive polypharmacy are: having a longstanding illness, chronic condition or handicap, at least 1 contact with a general practitioner in past 2 months and self-reported depression during the last year.
Which of the following is the most common adverse drug effect seen in the elderly?
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations.
Why are older adults at increased risk for toxicity when on antidepressants?
Old people are at greater risk of developing adverse events while taking any medication—including antidepressants—because of concurrent illness, consumption of other prescribed and over the counter drugs, dose miscalculation because of forgetfulness, and altered drug kinetics.
Why are elderly patients at particular risk of having adverse drug reactions?
The elderly are particularly at increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR)  attributed in the main to polypharmacy and physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs or poor compliance due to cognitive impairment or depression.
What are the factors that affect drug metabolism?
Physiological factors that can influence drug metabolism include age, individual variation (e.g., pharmacogenetics), enterohepatic circulation, nutrition, intestinal flora, or sex differences. In general, drugs are metabolized more slowly in fetal, neonatal and elderly humans and animals than in adults.
What factors affect drug absorption metabolism and elimination?
There are four factors that will influence the pharmacokinetic drugs test: water-solubility; fat-soluble; dissociation degree and molecular weight. Pharmacokinetic is a quantitative study of drugs in the body absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the law.
How is drug metabolism different in the elderly?
First-pass metabolism (metabolism, typically hepatic, that occurs before a drug reaches systemic circulation) is also affected by aging, decreasing by about 1%/year after age 40. Thus, for a given oral dose, older adults may have higher circulating drug concentrations.
Which factors increase the risk for poor adherence in older adults?
Patient-related factors: Physical impairments and cognitive limitations may increase the risk for nonadherence in older adults. Lack of knowledge about the disease and the reasons medication is needed, lack of motivation, low self-efficacy, and substance abuse are associated with poor medication adherence.
Which patient population has an increased risk of drug toxicity?
Elderly patients are at an increased risk for ADEs and drug interactions. ADEs account for nearly 700,000 emergency department visits and 100,000 hospitalizations each year.
Who is at highest risk for polypharmacy?
Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at- risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes.
What increases the risk of an adverse drug reaction?
Factors which might increase the possibility of the occurrence of ADRs include; extremes of age, gender, multiple drugs, disease state, past history of ADR or allergy, genetic factors, large doses and many other factors.
Which patients are at increased risk for adverse drug events?
Amongst the known risk factors for adverse reactions are increasing age, polypharmacy, liver and renal disease as well as being female. Female patients have a 1.5- to 1.7-fold greater risk of developing an ADR, including adverse skin reactions, compared with male patients.
Who are susceptible to ADR?
4.3. Age. Some ADRs are more common in infants and children, who have immature physiological systems, and others are increased in the elderly with failing physiological systems and increasing frailty and co‐morbidity.