What causes low sodium levels in elderly?
- Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an abnormally low amount of sodium in your blood or when you have too much water in your blood. Low blood sodium is common in older adults, especially those who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
Chronic kidney disease is a common cause for low-sodium levels in older adults. It also causes an increase in the excretion of water and less intake of fluids leading to low sodium levels. Diuretics are drugs that promote the flow or urine from the kidneys which can lead to reduced blood volume and thus lower blood pressure.
How do you treat low sodium in elderly?
Hyponatremia treatments may include changing a medication that affects your sodium level, treating the underlying disease, changing the amount of water you drink or changing the amount of salt in your diet.
What causes sodium levels to drop?
A low sodium level has many causes , including consumption of too many fluids, kidney failure, heart failure, cirrhosis, and use of diuretics. Symptoms result from brain dysfunction.
How do you raise your sodium level?
Options include: Intravenous fluids. Your doctor may recommend IV sodium solution to slowly raise the sodium levels in your blood . Medications. You may take medications to manage the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia, such as headaches, nausea and seizures.
How can I increase sodium levels in elderly at home?
Those who have mild to moderate hyponatremia resulting from lifestyle factors or medication may be able to increase sodium to normal levels by: drinking less fluids (often less than 1 quart per day) adjusting medication dose or switching medications.
Will eating more salt help hyponatremia?
In elderly patients with a diet poor in protein and sodium , hyponatremia may be worsened by their low solute intake. The kidney’s need to excrete solutes aids in water excretion. An increase in dietary protein and salt can help improve water excretion.
Can low sodium levels cause dementia?
Confusion, disorientation and drowsiness–common symptoms of low sodium –may masquerade as the symptoms of other neurological conditions in the elderly, such as vascular dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.
Which organ is most affected by hyponatremia?
Who is most at risk for hyponatremia? Anyone can develop hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is more likely in people living with certain diseases, like kidney failure, congestive heart failure , and diseases affecting the lungs, liver or brain . It often occurs with pain after surgery.
How do I test my sodium levels?
How is the sodium blood test done? This test is performed on a blood sample, obtained by venipuncture. A technician will insert a small needle into a vein on your arm or hand. This will be used to fill a test tube with blood.
What foods raise sodium levels?
High- Sodium Foods Smoked, cured, salted or canned meat, fish or poultry including bacon, cold cuts, ham, frankfurters, sausage, sardines, caviar and anchovies. Frozen breaded meats and dinners, such as burritos and pizza. Canned entrees, such as ravioli, spam and chili. Salted nuts. Beans canned with salt added.
How long does it take to recover from low sodium?
Although sodium may take longer to normalise within the brain and hence the neuropsychiatric symptoms take longer to resolve but serum levels should be corrected as advised earlier no faster than 10-12 mEq/L in 24 hrs . Levels lower than 105 mEq/L are prone to develop osmotic demyelination if corrected too rapidly.
Does coffee affect sodium levels?
Chronic caffeine intake increases urinary sodium excretion without affecting plasma sodium concentration .
How fast can you correct sodium?
In patients with severe symptomatic hyponatremia , the rate of sodium correction should be 6 to 12 mEq per L in the first 24 hours and 18 mEq per L or less in 48 hours.
What are normal sodium levels in elderly?
A normal blood sodium level is between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Hyponatremia occurs when the sodium in your blood falls below 135 mEq/L. Many possible conditions and lifestyle factors can lead to hyponatremia, including: Certain medications.
What is a critical sodium level?
In many hospital laboratories 160 mEq/L is chosen as the upper critical value. The evidence of this study suggests that sodium in the range of 155-160 mEq/L is associated with high risk of death and that 155 mEq/L rather than 160 mEq/L might be more suitable as the upper critical level .
Can low sodium cause dizziness?
Symptoms of a low sodium level include nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, feeling weak or tired, restlessness, muscle weakness, spasms or cramps and seizures or passing out. Most Americans eat much more sodium than their bodies require. Too much sodium can worsen high blood pressure and heart failure.