About 86 percent of people are over age 60 at diagnosis. Only 6 percent are under 50 years old. In MDS, the body produces too many immature bone marrow cells, also known as blasts.
International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS)
|Risk level||Median survival rates|
•Mar 19, 2021
- Existing data consistently suggest that MDS is predominantly a disease of the elderly (Figure).8Approximately 86% of patients with MDS were aged ≥60 years at the time of their diagnosis (median age, 76 years), and only 6% of cases were diagnosed in those aged ≤50 years.3Men have a higher incidence rate than women, and white individuals have a higher incidence rate than other racial/ethnic groups.3With an aging population, an increasing rate of secondary MDS, improved awareness of the disease,
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant stem-cell diseases that are usually diagnosed in elderly patients who present with anemia or, less commonly, bi- or pancytopenia. Their incidence in persons over age 80 is above 50 new cases per 100 000 persons per year. Their clinical course is highly variable.Author:
Ulrich Germing, Guido Kobbe, Rainer Haas, Norbert GattermannCited by:
What is the life expectancy of a person with MDS?
With current treatments, patients with lower-risk types of some MDS can live for 5 years or even longer. Patients with higher-risk MDS that becomes acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are likely to have a shorter life span. About 30 out of 100 MDS patients will develop AML.
How is MDS treated in the elderly?
Supportive care is important regardless of whether a person is getting other treatments for MDS . If other treatment is needed, a chemotherapy drug such as azacitidine (Vidaza) or decitabine (Dacogen) is often the first choice, especially for patients with lower-risk forms of MDS .
How do MDS patients die?
Death from MDS is often caused by bleeding and/or infection from low blood cell counts or after the disease becomes acute myeloid leukemia (AML). About a third of patients with MDS develop AML. It is important to remember that statistics on MDS are an estimate.
Is MDS a terminal disease?
MDS is a form of bone marrow cancer, although its progression into leukaemia does not always occur. The failure of the bone marrow to produce mature healthy cells is a gradual process, and therefore MDS is not necessarily a terminal disease . In some patients, however, MDS can progress to AML, Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.
How do you know when MDS is getting worse?
Symptoms of MDS For most people, symptoms are mild at first and slowly get worse . They can include: weakness, tiredness and occasional breathlessness (because of the low number of red blood cells) frequent infections (because of the low number of white blood cells)
What is the best treatment for MDS?
Both azacitidine and decitabine are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat all types of MDS. However, these drugs are used most often for patients with higher IPSS-R scores. Both can be given in the doctor’s office or clinic.
What are the stages of MDS?
WHO Classification System for MDS Subtypes MDS with single-lineage dysplasia ( MDS -SLD) one or two cytopenias in the blood. MDS with multilineage dysplasia ( MDS -MLD) one to three cytopenias in the blood. MDS with ring sideroblasts ( MDS -RS) MDS with isolated del(5q) MDS with excess blasts ( MDS -EB)
How did I get MDS?
Some outside exposures can lead to MDS by damaging the DNA inside bone marrow cells. For example, tobacco smoke contains chemicals that can damage genes. Exposure to radiation or certain chemicals such as benzene or some chemotherapy drugs can also cause mutations that lead to MDS .
Can chemo cure MDS?
Chemotherapy is not used to treat or cure MDS . However, high-dose chemotherapy may be used before a stem cell transplant to rid the body of cancer cells. It may also be used for MDS that has become acute myeloid leukemia or to ease symptoms caused by the disease.
How serious is myelodysplastic syndrome?
Takeaway. MDS is a severe , chronic syndrome from which very few people successfully recover. It often progresses to AML, which is a form of leukemia. Depending on which scoring system a doctor uses, life expectancy can change, according to the progression of MDS.
Does MDS cause pain?
Leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes ( MDS ) can cause bone or joint pain , usually because your bone marrow has become overcrowded with cancer cells. At times, these cells may form a mass near the spinal cord’s nerves or in the joints.
Can MDS spread to other organs?
MDS does not spread to organs like other cancers, but the abnormal blood cell counts can affect certain organs . MDS progresses to AML in one-third of cases, and certain types are more likely to progress than others .
What is considered high risk MDS?
The newer WPSS classification system takes into account chromosomal abnormalities like IPSS, but includes two more factors—the WHO’s own classification of MDS subtypes and whether the patient is dependent on red cell transfusions. In the WPSS, a score of three or above is considered higher – risk .
Does MDS turn into leukemia?
In about 1 in 3 patients, MDS can progress to a rapidly growing cancer of bone marrow cells called acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the past, MDS was sometimes referred to as pre- leukemia or smoldering leukemia .
Is MDS curable?
MDS cannot be cured with chemotherapy. An allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) is the only potential cure for patients with MDS .