Gait Disorders in Older Adults
- Abnormal Changes in Gait. A number of disorders can contribute to dysfunctional or unsafe gait. Causative neurologic disorders include dementias, movement and cerebellar disorders, and sensory or motor neuropathies.
- Evaluation. The goal is to determine as many potential contributing factors to gait disorders as possible.
- Treatment. Although determining why gait is abnormal is important, interventions to alter gait are not always indicated.
- Prevention. Primary prevention: High levels of physical activity have been shown to help maintain mobility, even in patients with disease.
How do you describe an elderly gait?
Changes in Gait with Aging 18,19 Other characteristics of gait that commonly change with aging include an increased stance width, increased time spent in the double support phase (i.e., with both feet on the ground), bent posture, and less vigorous force development at the moment of push off.
What causes unsteady gait in elderly?
The more common causes of dizziness and unsteady gait in old age are sensory deficits, such as bilateral vestibular failure, polyneuropathy, and impaired visual acuity; benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo; and central disorders such as cerebellar ataxia and normal-pressure hydrocephalus.
What is neurological gait dysfunction?
A functional movement disorder means that there is abnormal movement or positioning of part of the body due to the nervous system not working properly (but not due to an underlying neurological disease). A variety of gait (walking) problems can occur as part of a functional disorder .
How do you fix gait abnormalities?
Treatment and management. If an underlying condition is the cause of an abnormal gait , a person’s walk should correct itself when the condition is treated. This is often true for broken bones, as they can be treated with a cast. Other injuries may require surgery or physical therapy to help return the gait to normal.
What causes difficulty walking in the elderly?
The most common risk factors for mobility impairment are older age, low physical activity, obesity, strength or balance impairment, and chronic diseases such as diabetes or arthritis.
What causes balance issues in the elderly?
If the feeling happens often, it could be a sign of a balance problem . Balance problems are among the most common reasons that older adults seek help from a doctor. They are often caused by disturbances of the inner ear. Vertigo, the feeling that you or the things around you are spinning, is a common symptom .
What causes weakness in legs in elderly?
Leg weakness may be a sign of poor nutrition. Older adults experiencing the symptom often have low levels of calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium. These nutrients are all necessary for the body to build, repair, and maintain healthy connective tissues, muscles, and bones.
How can elderly improve their balance?
14 Exercises for Seniors to Improve Strength and Balance Exercise 1: Single Limb Stance. It’s best to start off with a simple balance exercise for seniors . Exercise 2: Walking Heel to Toe. Exercise 3: Rock the Boat. Exercise 4: Clock Reach. Exercise 5: Back Leg Raises. Exercise 6: Single Limb Stance with Arm. Exercise 7: Side Leg Raise. Exercise 8: Balancing Wand.
What does ataxic gait look like?
An unsteady, staggering gait is described as an ataxic gait because walking is uncoordinated and appears to be ‘not ordered’. Many motor activities may be described as ataxic if they appear to others, or are perceived by patients, as uncoordinated.
What part of the brain controls gait?
The cerebellum, in the back of the brain , controls balance, coordination and fine muscle control (e.g., walking ). It also functions to maintain posture and equilibrium.
What are the signs and symptoms of neurological disorder?
Signs and symptoms of nervous system disorders Persistent or sudden onset of a headache. A headache that changes or is different. Loss of feeling or tingling . Weakness or loss of muscle strength. Loss of sight or double vision. Memory loss . Impaired mental ability. Lack of coordination.
What neurological disorders cause balance problems?
Causes of Balance Disorders decreased blood flow to the brain due to stroke or a chronic condition such as aging. traumatic brain injury. multiple sclerosis. hydrocephalus. seizures. Parkinson’s disease. cerebellar diseases . acoustic neuromas and other brain tumors.
What disease causes walking problems?
Problems with gait, balance, and coordination are often caused by specific conditions, including: joint pain or conditions, such as arthritis . multiple sclerosis (MS) Meniere’s disease. brain hemorrhage. brain tumor. Parkinson’s disease . Chiari malformation (CM) spinal cord compression or infarction.
What causes gait disturbance?
The causes of gait disorders include neurological conditions (e.g. sensory or motor impairments), orthopedic problems (e.g. osteoarthritis and skeletal deformities) and medical conditions (e.g. heart failure, respiratory insufficiency, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and obesity).
What is a gait disorder?
Gait abnormality is a deviation from normal walking ( gait ). Watching a patient walk is the most important part of the neurological examination. Normal gait requires that many systems, including strength, sensation and coordination, function in an integrated fashion.